The officials spoke on condition of anonymity under Israeli security guidelines.
The Haaretz daily said Finkelstein was questioned after his arrival at Ben-Gurion airport near Tel Aviv and placed on a flight back to Amsterdam, his point of origin.
Finkelstein has angered Jewish groups by accusing Jews in Israel and the U.S. of exploiting the legacy of the Holocaust for political and financial gain. He also has argued that Israel uses the outcry over perceived anti-Semitism to stifle criticism.
Finkelstein resigned from DePaul University in Chicago last year after he was denied tenure.
He could not immediately be reached for comment. But before leaving Israel, he told Haaretz that he is "not an enemy" of the country, and he supports a peace agreement between Israel and the Palestinians.
Finkelstein told the newspaper he was held at the airport for nearly 24 hours and was asked whether he had met with al-Qaida operatives, whether he had been sent to Israel by Hezbollah and how he intended to pay for his stay in Israel.