Sheen and Mueller were married two years ago and have twin sons together. In the papers, Sheen gives "irreconcilable differences" as the reason for the divorce and indicated that they have a prenuptial agreement.
Sheen is seeking joint custody of their children, but is asking a judge not to award his wife any spousal support.
Within hours, Mueller filed her own petition for divorce, seeking sole custody of their two sons and spousal support. Her filing did not offer any additional details, but also cited Christmas as the date of separation.
Sheen, 45, pleaded guilty in Aspen, Colo., in August to misdemeanor third-degree assault after a Christmas Day altercation with Mueller.
The Associated Press contributed to this story