Moments after the vote - and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's somber reading of his punishment - Rangel briefly addressed his colleagues.
The 20-term Democrat said even though it was painful to accept the vote, he believed it reflected the political tide.
This is the 23rd time the House of Representatives has invoked censure, the most serious punishment short of expulsion from the House that the body can wield.
Rangel, 80, has been a representative for 40 years.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.