Authorities have reviewed a number of cases over the last 13 years.
The rare cancer, known as anaplastic large cell lymphoma, attacks lymph nodes and skin and has been reported in the scar tissue that grows around an implant.
The Food and Drug Administration is asking doctors to report all cases of the cancer so the agency can better understand the possible connection.
The FDA is aware of 60 known cases of the disease worldwide. Most of the cases were reported after patients sought medical care for pain, lumps, swelling and other problems around the surgical site.
Because the disease is so rare, FDA researchers suggested the issue may never be completely resolved.
The Associated Press contributed to this story.