The men are under investigation for corruption and face allegations that range from money laundering to abuse of authority and squandering state wealth.
The protesters who ousted former President Hosni Mubarak in 18 days of demonstrations often mentioned the deep corruption of the regime as a key reason behind their movement.
El-Adly, whose job gave him control of the security forces, has been blamed for the deadly brutality used by riot police against protesters.
Ezz was once a prominent member of Mubarak's ruling National Democratic Party. He is widely blamed for the widespread fraud that marred parliamentary elections held in November and December.
The security officials said the four men will initially be held for 15 days.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.