The confrontation between the actress and the employee, Dawn Holland, occurred while Lohan was in rehab at the Rancho Mirage facility in December.
Holland had accused Lohan of twisting her arm and hurting her wrist when she confronted the actress, who had returned to her sober-living residence after curfew. Lohan apparently refused Holland's request to take a Breathalyzer test.
Holland was later fired after talking about the incident on camera with celebrity website TMZ.
Lohan, who could have faced prison time for violating her probation if convicted of battery, left the Betty Ford Center on Jan. 3 after a roughly three-month stay.
The Riverside County district attorney said there is not enough evidence to file battery charges.
The actress will be back in court in April to face charges for allegedly stealing a $2,500 necklace from a Venice jewelry store. She has pleaded not guilty.
Lohan rejected a plea bargain in the theft case and, if convicted in a trial, could face up to three years in prison. A preliminary hearing in the case is scheduled for April 22.
The Associated Press and City News Service contributed to this report.