Nicholas Springer of San Rafael was arrested on Wednesday night, and police said they found images of about 35 women at three different Fairfax locations on the camera.
Springer's arrest came after a witness at the Fairfax Farmers Market reported a man using a shoe camera to take lewd photos of women.
Springer was booked into county jail on suspicion of peeping with a concealed camera and violating probation. He was expected to make his first court appearance on Friday.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.