On Wednesday morning, Mubarak denied charges of corruption and ordering the killing of protesters during the uprising that ousted him in February.
The 83-year-old Mubarak lay on a hospital bed inside the defendants cage in a courtroom in Cairo.
The proceedings were attended by about 300 spectators, including relatives of victims killed during the uprising.
The spectacle, aired live on state television, was a stunning moment for Egyptians. Many savored the humiliation of the man who ruled with unquestionable power for 29 years, during which opponents were tortured, corruption was rife, poverty spread and political life was stifled.
Mubarak was flown in just before the session from Sharm el-Sheikh, the Red Sea resort where he has been under arrest at a hospital since April.
Nine codefendants, including Mubarak's two sons, are also on trial. If convicted, Mubarak could be put to death.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.