The rapper, whose real name is Antwan Patton, was charged with three counts of possession of a controlled substance and one count of possession of drug paraphernalia on Sunday.
Patton, 36, was carrying MDMA, which is the main ingredient in ecstasy, according to the Miami-Dade County Corrections website.
He was booked at about 1:30 p.m. Sunday on $16,000 bond.
Big Boi is best known as half of the groundbreaking rap duo OutKast, which includes Andre 3000. The Atlanta-based group won six Grammys and churned out six platinum-plus albums, including "Speakerboxxx/The Love Below," which sold over 10 million copies.