Defense lawyers had argued that prosecutors failed to prove Edwards intentionally violated the law. But U.S. District Court Judge Catherine C. Eagles ruled immediately that there was enough evidence to let jurors decide.
Motions to dismiss the charges are routine in criminal trials, but they are rarely granted. The judge's ruling means Edwards' defense will begin calling witnesses on Monday. It remains unknown if Edwards will take the stand in his own defense.
Edwards is accused of masterminding a scheme to use nearly $1 million of money from donors to hide his pregnant mistress during the 2008 presidential campaign.
He faces up to 30 years in prison if convicted on all counts.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.