On Sunday, Curiosity fired 30 pulses during a 10-second window. It's the first time such a powerful laser has been used on another planet.
Scientists hope to identify the chemical elements in the rock. The goal is to determine if life could have survived on Mars.
Since landing in Gale Crater two weeks ago, the six-wheel rover has been checking out its instruments, including the laser.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.