"I have decided that this is going to be my last tournament," Roddick said during a news conference. "I don't know if I'm healthy enough or committed enough to go another year."
The 20th-seeded Roddick is scheduled to play Bernard Tomic in the second round on Friday night.
"I've thought all year that I would know when I got to this tournament, and when I was playing my first round, I knew," he said.
Roddick, who turned 30 on Thursday, has 32 career titles and won the U.S. Open in 2003 for his only major title. He spent 13 weeks at No. 1 in 2003 and was the youngest ever to reach the top spot at age 21. Roddick is third on the active title leaders list, behind Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal. He's currently ranked No. 22 in the world.
Roddick is married to model and actress Brooklyn Decker.