The $9.7 billion bill includes funding to help the government pay flood insurance claims. The White House said more than 100,000 flood claim payments from Sandy would be delayed without the additional money.
It was the first legislative action of the new Congress after the previous session shelved a vote last week on a much larger assistance plan for storm victims.
Lawmakers will weigh in on an additional $51 billion in Sandy aid later this month.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.