Timothy Tracy, 35, of West Hollywood, is accused of paying right-wing groups to create political unrest on behalf of U.S. intelligence. He was formally charged late Saturday with crimes including conspiracy, association for criminal purposes and use of a false document.
Venezuelan president Nicolas Maduro personally ordered Tracy's arrest Thursday. Maduro suspected Tracy of "creating violence in the cities of this country" in the wake of an April 14 presidential election narrowly won by the hand-picked successor to Hugo Chavez.
The U.S. government maintains Tracy's innocence. Friends say he is a self-funded documentary filmmaker with no political ties.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.