The 19-year-old was indicted Thursday on charges including using a weapon of mass destruction and bombing a place of public use, resulting in death.
Three people were killed and more than 260 were injured in twin explosions near the finish line of the marathon.
Tsarnaev's older brother, Tamerlan Tsarnaev, was killed following a gun battle with police on April 19.
Investigators say the brothers used shrapnel-packed pressure cooker bombs in the bombing. They are also accused of killing an MIT police officer.
The U.S. attorney's office says 17 of the charges against Tsarnaev could bring life in prison or the death penalty.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.