The blockage was found Monday during the 43rd president's annual physical examination. The procedure involved placing a stent in the artery.
Doctors say Bush should be able to return home Wednesday and resume his normal schedule on Thursday.
Bush, 67, was described as being "in high spirits" and eager to return home.
Stents are mesh scaffoldings that prop open arteries typically clogged by years of quiet cholesterol buildup. About half a million people have stents inserted in the U.S. each year, generally involving an overnight stay in the hospital.
Bush has no previous history of heart trouble, but has needed medical attention several times. In 2004 and 2005, he suffered some scrapes and bruises from two separate mountain bike accidents.
In 2002, he briefly lost consciousness while watching a football game on TV at the White House and hit his head. The incident was blamed on him not feeling well and an improperly eaten pretzel.
In 1998 and 1999, while governor of Texas, he had two benign colonic polyps removed. In 2002, while president, he had a follow-up colonoscopy and invoked a section of the 25th Amendment temporarily transferring presidential powers to Vice President Dick Cheney. The colonoscopy showed no signs of cancer.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.