Paul Ciancia, 23, was charged with 11 felonies, including first-degree murder. TSA Officer Gerardo Hernandez died in the shooting on Nov. 1.
Ciancia is also charged with attempted murder for shooting two other TSA officers, Tony Leroy Grigsby and James Maurice Speer.
Investigators think Ciancia was targeting TSA employees as he shot his way past a security checkpoint.
The indictment alleges that Ciancia used a Smith & Wesson 5.56-millimeter M&P15 semiautomatic rifle to shoot the three TSA officers.
Ciancia is charged with using the rifle to commit acts of violence against persons at an international airport. Brian Donovan Ludmer, a civilian, was wounded during the rampage.
The charges carry a possible death sentence, but federal prosecutors say they have not decided whether to seek the death penalty.
Ciancia is scheduled to be arraigned on the indictment next Thursday.