The radio host allegedly "repeatedly and falsely identified" Abdulrahman Alharbi, 20, as part of the crimes committed on April 15, 2013 on his talk show, according to the lawsuit filed Friday in U.S. District Court in Boston.
Furthermore, Beck's statements made on air "substantially and severely damaged" Alharbi's reputation, the lawsuit alleges.
The broadcast companies connected to Beck's show were also named in the lawsuit. Alharbi seeks a jury trial and unspecified damages.
Alharbi, who attends college in the Boston area, has been called a "murderer, child killer and terrorist" based on Beck's statements, the suit says.
On the day of the attack, Alharbi was a spectator near the marathon finish line when the bombs went off. He was injured and later questioned by authorities who determined he had no connection to the attack, the lawsuit says.
Brothers Tamerlan Tsarnaev, 26, and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, who was 19 at the time of the bombings, were blamed for the attack. The former died in a shootout with police four days after the attack, while the latter was captured and is being detained pending trial.
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev pleaded not guilty to 30 federal charges, including using a weapon of mass destruction. His trial is set to begin in November.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.