Ingram finished 28 points ahead of Stanford running back Toby Gerhart, the tightest finish in the 75-year history of the award.
Ingram wiped away tears before starting his speech and his voice wavered throughout.
"I'm a little overwhelmed right now," he said. "I'm just so excited to bring Alabama their first Heisman winner."
Ingram received 227 first-place votes and 1,304 points. Gerhart got 222 first-place votes and 1,276 points, while Texas quarterback Colt McCoy, last season's runner-up, received 203 and 1,145.
Nebraska defensive tackle Ndamukong Suh was fourth and Florida quarterback Tim Tebow, who won the Heisman two years ago, was fifth.
Ingram and top-ranked Alabama will play McCoy and No. 2 Texas for the national title on Jan. 7.