Researchers also found women worried about losing their jobs had higher blood pressure, cholesterol and body weight.
The research involved 17,415 participants in the Women's Health Study, a long-running trial looking at heart disease and cancer prevention. The women were healthy, 57 years old on average, and had worked full or part-time when the study began in 1999.
This was the first study to focus on women and work. Previous research on the health effects of work stress have only focused on men.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.