Massachusetts State Police said 47-year-old Grant Smith, of Cottonwood Heights, Utah, was taken into custody at Boston Logan International Airport as soon as the plane touched down shortly after 4 p.m. Saturday.
Authorities said Smith was sitting in first class, when a fellow passenger saw the pornographic images on Smith's laptop and alerted the flight crew.
Smith has been charged with possession of child pornography, and police say additional charges could follow.
His bail is set at $15,000, and he's scheduled to be arraigned Monday.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.