The Ohio Republican accused Democrats of failing to outline specific cuts to avoid tax increases and spending cuts.
"I was hopeful we'd see a specific plan for cutting spending and we sought to find out today what the president really is willing to do," Boehner said.
President Barack Obama continues a public relations push to increase pressure on Congress to reach a deal before the end of the year. While the two parties may be working privately, in public, they are digging into opposing positions.
"Republicans know where we stand," said Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid of Nevada. "We're still waiting for a serious offer from Republicans."
Reid noted that polls show strong public support for Mr. Obama's proposal to extend all expiring tax cuts except for those that apply to incomes over $200,000 for individuals and $250,000 for couples, but Republicans argue that the move would harm the economy rather than help it.
Boehner has said that Republicans are willing to endorse higher tax revenues as part of any deal, but only as part of a deal that includes savings from Medicare and other government benefit programs.
Geithner had a later session on his schedule with Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, as well as Congress' top Democrats.
The president is also meeting privately at the White House Thursday with Mitt Romney. It is their first meeting since the election. Romney will also meet with his former running mate, Paul Ryan. The Wisconsin congressman is chairman of the House Budget Committee and deeply involved in the fiscal cliff discussions.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.