The law could impact would-be parents across America. Kendra Skaggs, who is from Southern California, had just returned from Moscow, where she was approved to adopt 5-year-old Polina. The little girl has spina bifida, a debilitating birth defect. But now she won't be coming to America due to the ban.
Skaggs and her husband are shattered. She said no Russian families have ever shown any interest in adopting Polina.
"I can't take care of her, I can't. I can't help her, I can't tell her I love her," said Skaggs.
Russia's ban is believed to be in retaliation for human rights sanctions President Barack Obama signed into law.
UNICEF estimates that there are about 740,000 children not in parental custody in Russia while about 18,000 Russians are on the waiting list to adopt a child. The U.S. is the biggest destination for adopted Russian children - more than 60,000 of them have been taken in by Americans over the past two decades.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.