Weiland filed his suit Friday in Los Angeles Superior Court, one week after his former band mates asked a judge to stop him from using the Stone Temple Pilots' name or the group's music in solo performances.
The singer's case claims the three other members of Stone Temple Pilots had no right to oust him from the band back in February and are damaging his solo career. He is seeking more than $5 million in damages.
"How do you expel a man from a band that he started, named, sang lead on every song, wrote the lyrics, and was the face of for 20 years, and then try to grab the name and goodwill for yourselves," Weiland's complaint states. "You don't, but three of the instrumentalists from the band Stone Temple Pilots tried."
Skip Miller, an attorney for the remaining band members, says the group is moving on without Weiland and has replaced him with Linkin' Park frontman Chester Bennington.
The band claims Weiland was using its songs without proper permission and cited his lateness to concerts and poor performances as some of the reasons for his ouster.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.