The 22-year-old broke the NL rookie record for home runs with 39 and finished second in the league in homers.
Bellinger made his debut with the Dodgers in April. In his first season, he played 132 games with a .267 batting average. In Game 5 of the World Series, Bellinger hit a three-run home run that helped the team take a temporary lead.
New York Yankees outfielder Aaron Judge was chosen as American League Rookie of the Year. The 6-foot-7 slugger's victory was a foregone conclusion after he led the American League with 52 home runs and helped the Yankees reach the postseason as a wild card.
Judge is the first Yankee to receive the award since Derek Jeter in 1996.
Both Bellinger and Judge received unanimous votes for their honors.
The Associated Press and ESPN contributed to this report.