An Italian man is believed to be the first person diagnosed with monkeypox, COVID-19 and HIV at the same time.
Experts say it is very rare to get COVID and monkeypox at the same time and there is not a known documented instance of a person being diagnosed with all three infections at once.
The 36-year-old Italian man recently returned from a five-day trip to Spain in June 2022, according to the study published in the Journal of Infection.
More than a week after his return, he developed symptoms that included fever, sore throat and headache. He also started noticing unusual rashes on his arm and body.
After he was admitted to an Italian hospital, he was diagnosed with both COVID-19 and monkeypox. Additional testing also revealed the presence of HIV. It is not clear exactly when he contracted each of the viruses, but it was believed to be within a relatively recent time period for all three.
The study authors say the man had also been treated for syphilis in 2019. He was vaccinated against COVID-19 and had previously contracted that virus in January 2022.
He was treated for monkeypox and COVID and will have to take a lifetime of combination antiretrovial therapy for HIV.
The study authors say the case presents a lesson to doctors and health-care workers they should test for more than one virus for a patient presenting symptoms. The authors said there is not yet enough evidence to say if having all three viruses at once further aggravates the patient's condition.