The museum acquired the "Frank 2" guitar that Van Halen used during his 2007-2008 North American tour with original lead singer David Lee Roth.
The multicolored guitar is a replica of the original "Frankenstein" guitar that Van Halen used for more than 30 years.
The museum's director said the guitar reflects Van Halen's innovation, talent and influence. It will be part of the museum's instrument collection.
A museum spokeswoman said there are no current plans to put the guitar on public view.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.