The lawsuit alleges that businessman Richard Booker and several affiliated companies are violating copyright and trademark laws by using Marley's name and other intellectual property.
This includes the annual Nine Mile Music Festival in Miami and a tour business in an area in Jamaica where Marley grew up and is buried.
Marley died of cancer in 1981 at age 36.
The federal lawsuit filed in Fort Lauderdale seeks unspecified damages and to stop unauthorized use of Marley's name.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.