Arizona is asking the high court to allow the state to begin enforcing measures that were blocked by lower courts.
The measures include a provision that requires police, while enforcing other laws, to question a person's immigration status.
The Obama administration challenged the Arizona law, saying that regulating immigration is the job of the federal government, not the states.
Arizona countered that the federal government isn't doing enough and border states are suffering.
The court now has three politically charged cases on its election-year calendar.
The other two are President Barack Obama's health care overhaul and new electoral maps for Texas' legislature and congressional delegation.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.