The 23-year-old is recovering at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and doctors say the surgery went well.
The operation was needed to stop recurrent bleeding from a benign polyp. The condition is usually the result of unstable blood vessels in the vocal cord that can rupture.
Her throat problems have already caused her to cancel two different tours.
Doctors ordered the "Rolling in the Deep" singer to stop singing for the rest of the year.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.