The shooting occurred just before 2 a.m. Sunday on the northbound 101 Freeway north of the Lost Hills under-crossing, according to California Highway Patrol Officer A. Magana.
"For unknown reasons, a white Dodge Charger, occupied by an unknown number of suspects, fired approximately four to five rounds at the victim vehicle," the officer said. "The male and female occupant of the victim vehicle were not struck. However, the dog was struck with possibly fatal injuries to the torso."
CHP officers took the dog to the West Valley Pet Clinic for treatment, Magana said.
Officers were seen inspecting the car riddled with bullet holes at a gas station off the 101 freeway on Kanan Road.
Anyone who saw the shooting or has information was asked to call Magana at the CHP's West Valley Area office at 818-888-0980.