Authorities said when Ahmadullah Sais Niazi, 34, applied for U.S. citizenship in 2004, he failed to reveal that his brother-in-law has alleged connections to al-Qaeda.
Niazi was arrested on Friday at his home in Tustin.
The U.S. Attorney's Office claims the Afghan national also has ties to the Taliban.
U.S. Magistrate Arthur Nakazato ruled that Niazi must submit to electronic monitoring and home detention and surrender his passport and other travel documents. He cannot leave Southern California.
Niazi could get up to 35 years in prison if found guilty.
The Associated Press contributed to this story.
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