Kevin Harpham, 36, was charged with one count of attempting to use a weapon of mass destruction and one count of knowingly possessing an improvised explosive device.
The bomb was found on Jan. 17 inside a backpack by workers before the start of the parade and was defused without incident.
Officials for the FBI described the bomb as sophisticated and designed to produce mass casualties.
It wasn't clear if Harpham has a lawyer. Harpham was previously tied to a white supremacist organization.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.