The Young Men's Magazine, Number 2, was written in 1830 when Bronte was only 14. It is set in Glass Town, the earliest fictional world created by the Bronte siblings.
Sotheby's auction house predicted the manuscript would sell for between 200,000 and 300,000 pounds, but said the final sale price set new auction records for Bronte and for a literary work by any of the Bronte sisters.
The auction house said the Musee des Lettres et Manuscrits in Paris placed the winning bid following a bidding battle.
It says the manuscript had never been seen by scholars until its appearance at auction.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.