The Netherlands' National Institute for Public Health and the Environment said the salmon was traced to a Dutch company called Foppen, which sells fish to many major supermarkets in the Netherlands and stores around the world.
The salmon was sold under the Foppen and Kirkland brand names.
The Dutch public health institute said that around 200 people - and likely more - have been sickened in the Netherlands by a strain of the bacteria called Salmonella Thompson.
A representative for the U.S. Centers for Disease and Control Prevention said the federal agency has 85 recorded cases of the same strain from 27 states starting from July 1. Without an outbreak, she said the average number of such cases over that time would be about 30.
Craig Wilson, vice president of food safety at Costco, said the company immediately pulled the smoked salmon from shelves after receiving a call from Foppen late Monday. Costco also blocked sale of the salmon in stores, meaning the products won't scan at registers.
U.S. health authorities say they are also investigating whether the salmon could be at the root of a multi-state outbreak of the illness.
Foppen has halted all production of smoked salmon until the investigation is completed, he added.
Those infected by the salmonella bacteria can suffer symptoms including fever, vomiting and diarrhea.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.