If adopted, the plan would give a win to conservatives seeking to cut the safety net program.
MORE: Trump administration proposes plan to replace food stamps with food boxes
An administration official briefed on the plan says it would be narrowly targeted, applying mostly to people who are able-bodied, without dependents and seeking some specialized jobs. The official says roughly 5 percent of participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program could be affected.
The official spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss internal deliberations.
The drug testing proposal is another step in the administration's push to allow states more flexibility in implementing federal programs for the poor. It also wants to allow states to tighten work requirements for food stamp recipients.