The provisions included allowing the FBI to use roving wiretaps, access to library records and allowing surveillance of people who aren't connected to an identified terrorist organization.
The House voted 277-148, preventing the required two-thirds majority under a special, expedited procedure. Twenty-six Republicans voted with Democratic opponents.
The Senate is expected to vote on the extension later this month.
The defeat means that Republicans may have to bring the bill back to the floor under regular procedures that only require a majority for passage but allow for amendments. Time is of the essence: The three provisions will expire on Feb. 28 if the House and Senate can't agree on how to proceed.
The Associated Press contributed to this story.