Gov. Jerry Brown and first lady Anne Gust Brown presented the inductees with "Spirit of California" medals at a ceremony Thursday in Sacramento.
Past inductee Clint Eastwood and other celebrities were on hand to make the new members welcome.
Besides Aldrin and Johnson, the list includes members of surf band The Beach Boys, Nobel Prize recipient Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn, community activist Father Gregory Boyle, philanthropists Doris and Donald Fisher, guitarist Carlos Santana, and novelist Amy Tan.
Donald Fisher, disability rights activist Ed Roberts and California Supreme Court Justice Roger Traynor were honored posthumously.
The California Museum's California Hall of Fame celebrates the state's spirit of innovation and achievement.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.