Goh, 43, was also charged with three counts of attempted murder, plus a special circumstances allegation of multiple murders, making him eligible for the death penalty.
The South Korean native allegedly opened fire at Oikos University on Monday and killed seven people because he was angry about being expelled and teased for his poor English skills, according to police. He is cooperating with police but won't say what happened to the weapon.
Goh surrendered to authorities about an hour after the attack. Police say in court documents that Goh admitted to bringing a .45-caliber handgun to Oikos and four magazines of ammunition. The documents say he acknowledged shooting several people before fleeing.
Police say Goh was intent on finding a female school administrator, but the nursing program director was not present, so he appeared to have selected his victims at random and none were his alleged tormentors. So far, Goh has not shown any remorse, investigators said.
Goh allegedly lined students up against a wall and shot them execution-style.
People at the school "disrespected him, laughed at him," said Oakland Police Chief Howard Jordan. "They made fun of his lack of English speaking skills. It made him feel isolated compared to the other students."
Mourners from the East Bay's large Korean community gathered at an Oakland church on Tuesday night to mourn the seven victims. Six were students at Oikos University, a Korean Christian school.
The seventh hasn't been identified by police, but family members say she was 24-year-old Kathleen Ping, who worked as a receptionist at the school.
It was the nation's biggest campus shooting since the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre.
Goh is being held without bail on suspicion of seven counts of murder, three counts of attempted murder and other charges. Police have released little background information about Goh, other than to say he had become a U.S. citizen.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.