Dylan Quick, 20, has been charged with three counts of aggravated assault in the attack.
Harris County Sheriff Adrian Garcia said it appeared the suspect had been planning it "for some time." Investigators weren't certain on which floor the attack began and were working Wednesday to piece together the sequence of events.
Quick allegedly told investigators that he had been fantasizing about conducting such an attack since he was 8 years old.
The deaf college student attacked his victims with a razor utility knife with such force that "pieces of blade" were found in at least one of his 14 victims. Campus President Audre Levy said all are expected to recover.
Levy said there were no signs that Quick was a problem student, and many faculty members said he was a good student. The Harris County district attorney's office said Quick has been ordered to undergo a psychological evaluation.
Investigators have searched Quick's Houston home and confiscated a computer and other items, Garcia said.
The violent attack on campus was reported at 11:13 a.m. Tuesday, and Quick was taken into custody by 11:17 a.m. Students assisted in the arrested, tackling the suspect and holding him down until officers arrived.
Classes resumed Wednesday at the bustling campus where more than 18,000 students take courses. Students said workers were seen Wednesday morning washing away blood stains from outside the school's health science building.
ABC News and The Associated Press contributed to this report.