Eleanor Fairchild, a 78-year-old landowner, was also arrested. The two were standing in front of heavy equipment in an attempt to stop construction of the Keystone XL pipeline on Fairchild's farm in Winnsboro, about 100 miles east of Dallas.
Fairchild and Hannah were arrested for criminal trespassing and taken to jail. Jail records indicate that Hannah also faces a charge of resisting arrest.
Hannah has long opposed TransCanada's construction of the $7 billion pipeline, which is designed to transport heavy tar-sands crude oil from Alberta, Canada, to Texas' Gulf Coast refineries.
"The streets of Winnsboro will be much safer tonight now that they've gotten that 78-year-old great grandmother off the streets," said Paul Bassis, the actress' manager.
Hannah was also arrested in August 2011 while protesting the pipeline in Washington. She was one of several hundred prominent scientists and activists arrested that month.
Those against the pipeline say it would be unsafe because it would be carrying heavy, acidic crude oil that could more easily corrode a metal pipe, which would lead to a spill. They also say refining the oil would further contaminate the air in a region that has long struggled with pollution.
TransCanada says its pipeline would be the safest ever built, and that the crude is no dirtier than oil currently arriving from Venezuela or parts of California.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.