His attorney, Mark Geragos, says the hitmaker checked into an unspecified facility to be treated for anger problems Tuesday.
The news comes days after Brown was arrested and released from jail for allegedly punching a man outside the W Hotel in Washington D.C. Sunday.
District of Columbia police said Brown and his bodyguard punched 20-year-old Isaac Parker after he tried to get in a photo the singer was taking with two other people.
His publicist says Brown's goal "is to gain focus and insight into his past and recent behavior" so he can move on with his life from a healthier vantage point.
Brown remains on probation for hitting his then-girlfriend Rihanna in 2009.
The latest charge could have sent him to jail for violating his probation terms had it not been exonerated.
Brown has had other recent legal problems. His probation was briefly revoked after an alleged hit-and-run accident. The charge was dropped, but the court ordered him to do another 1,000 hours of community labor.
He was also accused of high-profile confrontations with rapper Drake following a New York City nightclub brawl and singer Frank Ocean outside of a studio.
Geragos said Brown's decision to enter rehab is not an acknowledgement of wrongdoing in the Washington case.
Brown is set to appear before a judge on Nov. 20 in Los Angeles for a progress report on his probation.
The singer faces up to four years in prison should a judge decide to revoke his probation again.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.