Parviz Sorouri, a member of the powerful parliamentary committee on foreign policy and national security, said Wednesday the alleged agents were operating in coordination with Israel's Mossad and other regional agencies, targeting the country's military and its nuclear program.
The United States and its allies suspect Iran is pursuing a nuclear weapon program. Iran denies the charge.
The lawmaker did not give the nationality of the alleged agents nor when or where they were arrested.
The CIA declined to comment on the report.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.